அறபுத் தமிழ் எங்கள் அன்புத் தமிழ்

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mr;Rthfdj;jpd; mD$yq; fUjp mwGj; jkpo;> jkpo; ypgpapy; vOjg;gl thuk;gpj;jJk; jkpopy; ,y;yhj mwG xypfs; jkpopy; fhzg;glhJ Nghapd. mwGj; jkpo; mwgpapy; vOjg;gl;L te;j fhyj;jpy; jkpOf;Fr; rpwg;ghd l> z> g> o Nghd;w vOj;Jf;fspd; xypiaf; Fwpg;gjw;F tpN\r mwG vOj;Jf;fs; cz;lhf;fg;gl;ld. mwG vd;DQ; nrhy;Ny muG vdj; jphpe;jikf;Fk; mwGj; jkpo; mjpypUe;J jkpo; ypgpf;F khwpaik xU fhuznkdyhk;. ufu wfuj;Jf;Fs;s xypg;Ngjj;jpd; EZf;fj;ij mwpahkypUe;jJk; fhuzkhapUf;fyhk;. ,e; ehl;fspw; $lr; rpy rQ;rpiffspy; mf;fiw> mf;fiu vd vOjg;gLjiy xU rhd;whff;nfhs;syhk;.

mwgpy; cs;s rpwg;G xypfisf; fhl;Lk; tpN\r vOj;Jf;fs; jkpopy; cUthf;fg;gly; mtrpaky;yth? jkpopy; rpwg;G vOj;Jf;fshd q> Q> z> l> s> w Nghd;wtw;iwf; nfhz;l nrhw;fis Nuhkd;-,q;fpyp\;-ypgpapy; vOJtjw;F xypf; Fwpg;Gf;fSf;Fg; gjpy; tpN\r vOj;Jf;fis cUthf;Fjy; Ntz;Lnkd;Dk; fUj;J mz;ikapy; njhptpf;fg;gl;lJ. mwGj; jkpo; tp\aj;jpYk; ,e;j Nahridiag; gpd;gw;wyhk;. kzpg;gputhsk; jkpOf;F mspj;j \> [> ] Nghd;w vOj;Jf;fSk; ,J tp\aj;jpy; gadspf;f ty;yd.

mwGj; jkpo; tPo;r;rpaile;jikf;fhd fhuzj;ij ehk; Cfpj;jwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. vdpDk; mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; vtUk; ,jid Muha;e;jjhfj; njhpatpy;iy. mr;R thfdj;jpd; tUif xU fhuzk;. Nkw;nrhd;d rpwg;G vOj;Jf;fs; jkpopy; cUthfik kw;nwhU fhuzk;. jg;]Ph;fisAk; nksY}j;fisAk; mwG ypgpapNyNa vOJjy; Ntz;Lnkd;W thjhb te;jik ,d;DnkhU fhuzk;. mf;fhy kf;fs; cyfpay; fy;tpr; nry;tj;jpy; fhl;b te;j mrpuj;ij mwGj; jkpo; E}y;fis mr;Nrw;Wk; Kaw;rp NghjpasT Nkw;nfhs;sg;glhik gpwpnjhU fhuzk;. ,q;fpyp\; nkhopapd; Mjpf;fk; ,d;DnkhU fhuzk;. ,d;W Nghjdh nkhop vd;Dk; me;j];ij ,q;fpyp\; ,oe;J tUfpwJ. mwGj; jkpo; kPz;Lk; jioj;Njhq;Ftjw;F ,J ey;y rkak;. Mdhy;> ehk; ,j; Jiwapy; ];jhgdhPjpahf vJtpj Kaw;rpAk; vLf;fhjpUf;fpNwhk;. ,e;j tifapy; murhq;f K];ypk; fyhrhiyfspw; fy;tp fw;gpf;Fk; Mrphpah;fspd; nghWg;G nghpaJ vd;gJ nrhy;yhkNy ngwg;gLk;. mJNghyNt K];ypk; jkpo; vOj;jhsUf;Fk; ngUk; nghWg;G cz;L. Vndd;why;> mwGj; jkpo; kuigg; Ngzhj K];ypk; vOj;jhsh;fs; jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j ,yf;fpaq;fisr; rpU\;bj;jy; rhj;jpak; vd;W vdf;Fj; Njhd;wtpy;iy.

vdJ ,f;fl;Liuia Kbf;F Kd;dh; ,yq;ifapy; ,];yhk; vd;Dk; E}ypy; ehd; $wpAs;s %d;W Nahridfis ,q;F tphpj;Jf; $w tpiofpNwd;. ,e;j Nahridfs; Kw;w Kbe;j KbGfs; vd;Nwh> ,q;F je;Js;s xOq;Fg; gpufhuNk gpd;gw;wg;gly; Ntz;Lk; vd;Nwh nfhs;syhfhJ.

1.   xypf;Fwpg;G xUikg;ghL – ,J tp\aj;jpy; tpNr\ milahsq;fSf;Fg; gjpy; tpNr\ vOj;Jf;fis cUthf;fyhk;.

2.   mwGj; jkpo; mfuhjp – ,jw;F mwGj; jkpo; E}y;fspy; fhzg;gLk; mUk;gj ciufis Mjhukhff; nfhs;syhk;.

3.   mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaf; Nfhit Guhzk;> fyk;gfk;> Kdh[hj;J> me;jhjp> jpUg;Gfo;> Qhdg;ghl;L Mfpatw;wpd; rpwe;j gFjpfis kl;Lky;yhky;> ehlfk;> rpe;J> jhyhl;L> Fk;kp> gilg;Nghh; Mfpatw;wpd; gFjpfSld; Guhz trdk;> khh;f;f xOf;fk;> fp];]h Kjypa trd E}y;fspd; gFjpfisAk; cs;slf;fpajhf ,J mikjy; Ntz;Lk;.

4.   [P.rP.<. tFg;GfSf;F kl;Lky;yhky; fPo; tFg;GfSf;Fk; cfe;j thrpidg; Gj;jfq;fs; ntspaplg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,it K];ypk; khzth;fis ey;topg;gLj;jf;$ba ,];yhkpa tuyhw;Wr; rk;gtq;fs;> fijfs;> ,];yhkpa fyhrhuj;ijg; gpujpgypf;Fk; epfo;r;rpfs; Mfpadtw;iwr; rpj;jphpg;gdthf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

5.   nkhopngah;g;Gf;fiy murhq;f K];ypk; Mrphpah; ghlrhiyfspy; ,jw;Fr; rpwg;gplk; mspf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

6.   mwGj; jkpopy; rpWth; ,yf;fpa E}y;fs; tUq;fhy re;jjpapdUf;F ehk; mspf;ff; $ba KJnrhk; vkJ fyhrhu ghuk;ghpaNk. ,jd; mUik ngUikfis mth;fs; mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;Fr; rpWtajpypUe;Nj gapw;rpaspj;jy; mtrpak;. ,jw;Nfw;w rpWth; ,yf;fpaq;fs; ,];yhkpaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy;> mwGj; jkpopy; ntsptUjy; mtrpak;. ,e; E}y;fs; ,q;fpyp\; nkhopapy; Vw;gl;Ls;s E}y; mikg;G mr;nrOj;J tbtk; Kjyhd Kd;Ndw;wq;fis mDrhpj;jdthf cUthf;fg;gly; ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;.

7.   ,yl;rpag+h;tkhd jpwdha;G-mwGj; jkpopd; GdUj;jhuzj;Jf;F mj;jpahtrpakhd mk;rq;fs; gw;wp kpFe;j rpuj;ijAld; Muha;jy; mtrpak;. gioa mwGj;jkpo; E}y;fspd; gjTiufspYk; nghopg;GiufspYk; kl;LNk fhyj;ij tpuakhf;fhJ me;E}y;fspd; tuyhw;W hPjpahd mk;rq;fs;> ,yf;fpaj; juhjuk;> rhuhk;rk;> xg;gpay; Ma;T Mfpatw;wpYk; ,];yhkpaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ftdQ; nrYj;Jjy; Ntz;Lk;.

 

8.   ,t;NtO jpl;lq;fisAk; epiwNtw;Wtjw;nfd xU rQ;rpif Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lhy; ed;whapUf;Fk;. jdp xUtuhNyh> xU rpyuhNyh ,t;tsitAk; rhjpj;Jtpl KbahJ. $l;L Kaw;rp Njit. jpl;ltl;lkhd mbg;gilapy; epiwNtw;wg;glNtz;ba ,g; gpur;rpidfs; njd; ,e;jpa K];ypk;fSf;Fk; nghJthdit vd;gjhy; mth;fisAk; ehk; fye;jhNyhrpf;fyhk;. ,t;tpjk; nra;tjdhy; nkhop ngah;g;G> nkhopAUtk; Mfpatw;wpy; xUikg;ghL fhz;gJld; mwGj; jkpopd; me;j];J cah;tjw;Fk; topgpwf;Fk;. Rje;jpuj;ijf; fhg;gjw;F> [dhehafj;ijg; NgZtjw;F ,ilawhj fz;fhzpg;G mtrpankd;ghh;fs;. mJNghyNt> fyhrhu jdpj;Jtj;ijg; Ngzpf; fl;bf; fhg;gjw;Fk; mauhj jpl;ltl;lkhd gpuahirfs; ,d;wpaikahjdthFk;. ,g;gpuahirfspy; Mh;tKz;lhf;F tjw;F ,d;iwa tpoh cjtp Ghpa Ntz;Lnkd;W vy;yhk; ty;y my;yh`{j;j Myhtplk; ,iwQ;RNtkhf. MkPd;.

 

ehk; vd;d nra;Njhk;?

 

mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpak; Nghjpa msT Nghw;wg;glhkYk; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; gug;gg;glhkYk; ,Ue;J tUtJ kpfTk; tUe;jj;jf;fnjhd;whFk;. mjd; fhuzkhf K];ypk;fs; kj;jpapYk; $l mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;ijg; gw;wpa mwpT kpff; FiwthfNt ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. Vnddpy; vkJ ,yf;fpaj;ij ehNk jf;fthW Nghw;whjpUf;Fk;NghJ K];ypk; my;yhjhh; mjidg; Nghw;Wth; vd;W vjph;ghh;g;gJ vq;qdk;? K];ypk; Gyth;fSk; vOj;jhsh;fSk; fle;j fhyq;fspy; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpw;F kfj;jhd njhz;L Ghpe;jpUf;fpd;wduhapDk; Muk;g fhyj;jpy; mth;fs; mwG vOj;jpNyNa mtw;iw vOjp te;j fhuzj;jhy; K];ypk; my;yhjhh; kj;jpapNy mit nry;thf;ifg; ngwtpy;iy. NkYk; ngUk;ghyhd ,];yhkpa ,yf;fpa E}y;fs; kjj;ij Kw;wpYk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L vOe;jikahy; K];ypk; my;yhjhUf;F mjpy; rpuj;ij Vw;gltpy;iy. vdNt ,e;j #o;epiyapy; mth;fs; ,];yhkpa ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ftdk; nrYj;jpapUf;f Ntz;Lnkd;Nwh my;yJ tphpe;j jkpo; ,yf;fpag; gug;gpy; vk; ,yf;fpaj;jpw;F jf;fNjhh; me;j];J mspj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lnkd;Nwh ehk; vjph;ghh;g;gJ nghUj;jKilajhfhJ. vkJ ,yf;fpaj;ij ehKk; Nghw;wp gpwUk; mwpar; nra;Ak; nghWg;G vk;KilaNjahFk;. ,t;tifapy; K];ypk;fshfpa ehk; – ehDk; ePq;fSk; cl;gl nghpaNjhh; jtiw ,ioj;Jtpl;Nlhk; vd;W kPz;Lk; Fwpg;gpLtijg; gw;wp ePq;fs; tUj;jg;glkhl;Bh;fs; vd;W ek;GfpNwd;.

ehNk ,ioj;Jtpl;l ,j;jtwpd; fhuzkhf jkpo; mfuhjpapy; ,lk; ngw Ntz;ba rpy nrhw;fs; ,d;W mq;F fhzg;gltpy;iy. jkpopyf;fpa rhpijapy; fhzg;gl Ntz;ba gy nghpahh;fspd; ngah;fs; mq;fpy;iy. K];ypk;fSf;Nf rpwg;ghfTk; Mdhy; nghJj; jd;ikAiladthfTk; mike;Js;s gy mhpa fUj;Jf;fSk;> nfhs;iffSk; jkpo; ,yf;fpa muq;fpNy mtw;Wf;Fhpa ,lk; ngwhJ Nghapd. ,g;gbg;gl;l xU re;jh;g;gj;jpy; ek;Kila epiyikiag; gw;wpr; rpe;jid nra;J vk;kpilNaAs;s Fiwfis ePf;Ftjw;F top fhZjy; mtrpakhFk;.

,q;F ehk; rpy Nfs;tpfis vk;kpilNa Nfl;Lf; nfhs;s Ntz;bath;fshf ,Uf;fpNwhk;. ,JfhWk; ehk; ekJ rhpj;jpu rk;ge;jkhd cz;ikfis El;gkhf Muha;e;J ntspapl;Ls;Nshkh? K];ypk;fshy; Mf;fg;gl;Ls;s E}y;fis jFe;j Kiwapy; gpuRhpj;Js;Nshkh? vkJ nghpahh;fspd; tho;f;ifr; rhpj;jpuq;fis rh];jpu hPjpahf Muha;r;rpAlDk;> Mjhuj;JlDk; toq;fpAs;Nshkh? Muha;r;rpf; $lq;fs; mikj;Js;Nshkh? vkJ fiyQh;fspd; – ,yf;fpa Nkijfspd;> gpwe;j jpdq;fis Qhfg;gLj;jpj; jf;fthW nfhz;lhbapUf;fpNwhkh?

1955k; Mz;L nrd;idapy; eilngw;w njd;dpe;jpa K];ypk; fofj;jpd; nghd;tpohtpy; ,uz;lhk; ehl; $l;lj;jpy; epfo;j;jpa jiyikAiu.

(,yq;ifapy; ,];yhk;)

 

mwGj; jkpo; Mypk; Gyth;

Qhgfhh;j;j tpoh vLf;f Ntz;ba rpwg;gpidg; ngw;w xUtuJ epidtpid vj;jpdj;jd;W epidT $Utnjd;gJgw;wp kpFe;j Rthurpakhd xU rh;r;ir eilngWtJ tof;fk;. ,we;j jpdj;ijf; nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lnkd;NghUk; gpwe;j jpdj;ijNa nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lnkd;NghUk; jj;jk; nfhs;iffis typAWj;jp epw;gh;.

Mdhy; uh[h[p mth;fs;> Xhplj;jpy; epidT jpdq;fspid ,we;j jpdj;jd;Nw nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lnkdf; $wpAs;shh;. epidT tpohf; nfhz;lhlg; ngWk; jFjpAila xUth;> gpwe;j jpdj;jd;W kw;w ve;j kdpjiuAk; kpQ;Rk; vf;fhhpaj;ijAk; nra;Jtpltpy;iy vd;Wk;> ,we;j jpdj;jd;Nw mth; kw;w kdpjh;fspdpd;Wk; gphpe;J epw;Fk; rpwg;GW rhjidfisaPl;batuhf tpsq;fpapUg;ghnud;Wk; $wpa uh[h[p> ,we;j jpdj;jd;Nw epidT tpohf;fspidf; nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lnkdf; $wpAs;shh;.

,f; fl;Liu ehafuhfpa aho;g;ghzj;J tz;zhh;gz;iz nra;F. R. K`k;kJ mrdhnyg;ig Mypk; Gyth; mth;fisg; nghWj;j kl;by;> ehk; ,we;j jpdj;ijNa epidT jpdkhf nfhz;lhl Ntz;bapUf;fpd;wJ. mth; gpwe;j jpdj;ijNah my;yJ gpwe;j tUlj;ijNah jpl;ltl;lkhff; $w KbahjpUf;fpd;wikNa fhuzkhFk;. Mdhy; mth; ,we;j jpdk; gw;wp vj;jifa re;NjfKk; fpilahJ. Gyth; mth;fspd; jk;gpahUk; vdJ mUikj; je;ijahUkhfpa kh;`{k; [dhg; v];. vk;. mg+gf;fh; mth;fs; jkJ Fwpg;Ngl;by; mth; kiwTgw;wpf; Fwpj;Js;shh;. 1918 Mk; Mz;L bnrk;gh; khjk; 18 Mk; jpfjp Gjd;fpoikad;W K];ypk; ehl; fzf;Fg;gb wgpa;Ay; mt;ty; khjk; gjpd;%d;whtJ gpiwad;W Gyth; mth;fs; nksj;jhdhh;fs;.

<oj;jpypUe;J mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpak; tsh;j;j jiyrpwe;j jkpo;g; Gyth; md;W kiwe;jhh;. aho;g;ghzj;Jj; jkpo;g; Gyth;fSk; njd;dpe;jpa K];ypk; Gyth;fSk; tho;j;jpg; gutpa tuftpnahUth; md;W fhykhdhh;. murhq;fj;jpdhy; elj;jg;gLk; vOJtpidQh; ghPl;irapy; Njwpa Kjy; ,yq;if K];ypk; vdf; fUjg;glj; jf;fth; md;W fhykhdhh;. gyuhYk; Nghw;wg;gl;l> rw`{ newp jtwhj ,];yhkpa gf;jh; md;W kiwe;jhh;.

Gyth; mrdhnyg;ig mth;fsJ tho;T gyJiw Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhz;l xU tho;thFk;. <oj;J K];ypk;fs; tho;tpy; ,lk;ngw Ntz;ba gz;Gfs; mj;jidAk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Ltjhf mike;Js;sJ mth; tho;T.

,wf;Fk;nghOJ mth; aho;g;ghz tlkhfhzg; nghwpapayhsh; mYtyfj;jpy; gpujk fzf;F ,ypfpjuhf ,Ue;jhh;. 1890k; Mz;L Nk khjk; Kjyhk; jpfjp mth; vOJtpidQh; ghPl;irapy; rpj;jpnaa;jp ,g; gjtpiag; ngw;whh;. Mdhy; mjw;F Kd;dUk; mth; aho;g;ghzf; fr;Nrhpapy;jhd; flikahw;wp te;jhh;. mf;fhyj;jpy; tof;fpypUe;j fPo;epiy vOJtpidQh; Nritapy; 1.7.1888 Kjy; Nrh;e;j mth;> 1870k; Mz;bw;Fk; 1874k; Mz;bw;Fk; ,ilapy; gpwe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

aho;g;ghzj;J tz;zhh;gz;iziar; Nrh;e;jtUk; Mtuk;gl;il> khd;nfhk;G Kjypatw;iw Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; tzpfj; Jiwapy; <Lgl;bUe;jtUkhfpa Ry;jhd; K`paj;jPd; vd;gtuJ kfdhfg; gpwe;jhh; mrdhnyg;ig mth;fs;. mf;fhyj;J K];ypk;fs; ,q;fpyp\; fy;tpia mJ fpwp];Jtj;NjhL ,uz;lwf; fye;jJ vd epidj;J> ntWj;njhJf;fpdh;. vdpDk; mrdhnyg;ig ,q;fpyp\; ghlrhiy xd;wpw;Nf mDg;gg;gl;lhh;. MWKf ehtyh; mth;fs; fy;tp gapd;w mNj nkjb];j fy;Y}hpapNyNa ,tUk; fy;tp gapd;whh;. mf; fy;Y}hpapy; tUlh tUlk; mspf;fg;gLk; iggps; ghpirAk; ngw;w mrdhnyg;ig ,t;tpaj;jF rhjidahy; murhq;f mjpguJ ftdj;ijAk; <h;j;jhnud;W $Wth;. mf;fhyj;jpy; toq;fg;ngw;w ghlrhiyg; ghprpy;fs; epjpg; ghprpy;fshf ,Ue;jikapdhy; ghlrhiyr; fl;lzk; mtw;wpdpw;W fopf;fg;ngWtJ tof;fk;. ghprpw; gzj;ijf; nfhz;Nl jdJ kfd; gbg;ig Kbj;jhh; vd mrdhnyg;igapd; jfg;gdhh; mbf;fb $Wthuhk;. mrdhnyg;ig mth;fs; jd; gbg;Gj;jpwj;jpdhy; xU rpwpJ fhyj;jpw;Fs; jikadhUld; xNu tFg;gpy; fy;tp gapd;whh;. nkw;wpf;FNyrd; ghPl;irapy; rpj;jpnaa;jpa gpd;dh; jk;G ePjthdpd; fPo; gapw;rp ngw;W te;jhh;. ,tuJ Mw;wy;fisawpe;j jk;G ePjthd; ,tiug; Gnwf;luhfg; gbf;FkhW Ntz;bdhh;. Mdhy; ,tNuh mj;njhopypy; jhk; vy;yhf; fhyj;Jk; cz;ikiaf; $w KbahnjdTk; mjdhy; mj;njhopiyj; jhk; Nkw;nfhs;s tpUk;gtpy;iy vd;Wk; $wpdhh;.

gbg;G Kbe;j gpd;dh; ,th; cj;jpNahf Ntiyahff; nfhOk;G nry;Yk;tiu (1890) jkpo; gbg;gjpNyNa jdJ g+uz ftdj;ijAQ; nrYj;jpdhh;. ed;D}y;> njhy;fhg;gpak; Nghd;w ,yf;fz E}y;fis Iae;jphpguf; fw;w fhyk; mJ. f];J}hp NtYg;gps;is vd;gthplk; etuj;jpdk; vDk; itj;jpa E}ypw;Fg; ghlk; Nfl;lhh;. MWKf ehtyh; nrd;j jkpo;f; fy;tp kWkyh;r;rpapd; gaid mDgtpj;jth;fSs; mrdhnyg;igAk; xUth;. MWKf ehtyh; mth;fs; irt E}y;fis trd eilapy; Mf;fpaJ Nghd;W ,th; ,];yhkpa E}y;fis trd eilapy; vOjhJ tpl;lik vkJ Jh;g;ghf;fpankd;Nw $wy; Ntz;Lk;.

nfhOk;gpy; cj;jpNahfk; tfpj;j fhyj;jpYk; mth; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; <Lgl;ltuhfNt fhzg;gl;lhh;. nfhOk;gpy; tho;e;J te;J xU gpugy jufh; ,y;yj;jpy; ele;J te;j fk;guhkhaz tpsf;fj;jpw;F ,th; nry;tJz;nld;Wk;> xU ehs; ghly;fSf;Fg; gad; nrhy;YkhW rpyh; Ntz;l ,th;> ~~vdf;Fr; rhpj;jpuk; tpsq;fhJ|| vd;W $wpdhh; vd;Wk;> mjw;F mth;fs; ~~nrhy;nyhU nghUshfthtJ nrhy;Yq;fs;|| vd Ntz;bdh; vd;Wk;> gpd;dh; ,th; gad; nrhd;d Kiw ahtiuAk; Mde;jf; flypy; Mo;j;jpajdhy; mtNu md;W KO ehSk; gad; nrhy;y Ntz;b ,Ue;jJ vd;Wk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. nfhOk;gpy; tho;e;j fhyj;jpy; mth; ,j;jifa ,yf;fpa tp\aq;fspYk; <Lgl;lhnudpDk;> mth; kdk; KOtJk; Mj;khh;j;j tplaq;fspNyNa <Lglj; njhlq;fpw;W. mwG nkhop ty;YeUk; kjj;Jiw mwpQUkhfpa nfhOk;G mg;Jh; u`;khd Mypk; rhfpG mth;fsplk; mwG gapd;whh;. ehafk; (]y;) mth;fsJ tho;f;if gw;wpAk; ,khk; f];]hyp mth;fsJ Mf;fq;fspYk; mth; ftdk; nrYj;jpdhh;. mwT thd rhj;jpuj;ij Mh;tj;Jld; gapd;whh;.

nfhOk;gpy; rpy tUl fhyk; Ntiy nra;J gpd;dh; kPz;Lk; aho;g;ghzj;Jf;Fr; nrd;whh;. mq;F 1918 Mk; Mz;Ltiu khtl;lg; nghwpapay; mYtyfj;jpy; flikahw;wpdhh;.

mrdhnyg;ig mth;fs; fhl;rpf;F vspauhAk; kdpjhgpkhdk; epiwe;jtuhfTk; ,Ue;jhh;. mf;fhyj;J cj;jpNahfj;jh;fs; ~~hpf;\h|| tz;bapw; nry;tNj kughf ,Ue;jnjdpDk; mth; mjid ntWj;njhJf;fpj; ~~jpUf;fy; tz;b|| vdr; rduQ;rkhf miof;fg;gLk; xw;iw khl;L tz;bapNyNa nrd;W te;jhh;.

ghuk;ghpa tp\aq;fspYk; Mj;khh;j;jj; JiwapYNk mth; kdJ vg;nghOJk; yapj;jpUe;jJ.

mrdhnyg;ig mth;fsJ Mf;fq;fs; mtUf;Fj; jkpopy; ,Ue;j NguwptpidAk; ,];yhk; gw;wpa mtuJ Mo;e;j mwptpidAk; vLj;Jf; fhl;Ltdthf ,Uf;fpd;wd.

jkpo; kugpy; mjpfk; tpoq;fg; ngwhudTk;> rhjhuz jkpo; thrfh;fl;F ed;F tpsq;fhjdTkhfpa mwGj; njhlh;GfisAk; ,];yhkpaf; Nfhl;ghLfisAk; mth; jkJ ftpijfspy; ifahz;Ls;s Kiwik kuG jtwhJ Gjpad GFj;Jtjw;Fj; jiyrpwe;j cjhuzkhFk;. ,j;Jiwapy; cioj;j njd;dpe;jpa K];ypk; Gyth;fSld; rhpepfh; rkhdkhf epw;gth; ,th;. mtuJ ghly;fs; gy gf;jpg; ghly;fshfNt ,Uf;fpd;wd. ~~Gfo;g;ghtzp|| vDk; njhFg;gpNy tUk; ghly;fs; jd;ik epiyapy; epd;W jkpo; kuG jtwhJ ghlg;gl;l ghf;fshFk;. etuj;jpdj; jpUg;Gfs;> K`paj;jPd; Mz;lif mth;fs; Nghpy; Mrphpa tpUj;jk;> gjhapFg; gjpw;Wj; jpUf;fe;jhjp> rh`{y; `kPJ Mz;lifath;fs; Nghpy; Kdh[hj;J Kjypad mjpy; ,lk; ngWfpd;wd.

jpUg;Gfo;g; gh Kiwf;NfAhpa re;jj; rpwg;gpid ehk; etuj;jpdj; jpUg;Gfopy; ed;F fhzyhk;.

K`paj;jPd; Mz;lif mth;fs; Nghpy; ghlg;ngw;w Mrphpa tpUj;jj;jpYk; Kdh[hj;jpYk; jd;ik epiyg; gf;jp ntspg;ghL rpwg;Gw miktijf; fhzyhk;.

kiw nghUs; itj;Jg; ghLtJk; rpj;jpuf;ftp ghLtJk; mf;fhyj;J ,yf;fpa kuGfspy; xd;W. gjhapFg;gjpw;Wj; jpUf;fj;je; jhjpapYk; jpUehif epNuhl;l te;jhjpapYk; ,j;jifa ghly;fisf; fhzyhk;. ,g; ghly;fSf;Fj; jhNk gjTiu vOjpapUg;gJ ftdpj;jw;FhpaJ.

mrdhnyg;ig mth;fsJ ,yf;fpa tho;tpy; Kf;fpa ,lk;ngWtJ Fyhk; fhjpW ehtyUld; mth; nfhz;bUe;j njhlh;GfSk; m]dhnyg;igg; Gyth; mth;fspd; Gfopg;ghtzpiaf; fz;Zw;w Fyhk;fhjpW ehtyh; E}ypd; rpwg;Gf;fis tpae;J $wp ekJ GytUf;F xU fbjk; tiue;jhh;. md;W njhlq;fpa el;G ,Wjptiu ePbj;J mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpw;Fg; ngUk; njhz;lhw;wpw;W. Gyth; mth;fs; ehtyhpd; fbjq;fisg; nghpJk; Ngzp te;jhh;. mf; fbjq;fspy; Fyhk; fhjpW ehtyh; mth;fs; Gytiu ~~jk;gp mrdhnyg;ig|| vd;Nw tpspj;jy; tof;fk;.

aho;g;ghzj;jpw;Fj; jhk; tutpUg;gjhff; $wpa Fyhk;fhjpW ehtyUf;F> ~~tUtjhdhy; Guhzk; xd;Wld tUf|| vd md;Gg; gzpapl;lhh; mrdhnyg;ig. ehtyUk; wpghapah Guhzk; vDk; E}Yld; te;J Nrh;e;jhh;. ,JNt gpd;dh; MhpG ehafk; vd miof;fg;glyhapw;W. (1896). Fyhk;fhjpW ehtyh; aho;g;ghzj;jpypUe;j fhyj;jpNyNa Gyth; mth;fs; jpUehif ePNuhl;lkhf te;jhjpia vOjpf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;.

Gythpd; Gfo; jpf;nfl;Lk; gutpw;W. mwGj;jkpo; ,yf;fpak; gilj;Njhh; ahtUk; mrdhnyg;ig mth;fspd; rhw;W ftpiaj; jj;jk; E}ypw;fzpahff; nfhz;ldh;. Fyhk;fhjpW ehtyh; vOjpa jpUkf;fhj;jphpge;jhjp (1895) MhpG ehafk; (1896) eh$h;g; Guhzk; (1895) K`k;kJ K`papj;jPd; nyg;ig `h[pg; Gyth; vOjpa rhJyp ehafk; (1914) fhjpU K`papj;jPd; mz;zhtpahh; vOjpa gpf;`{khiy (1901) Mfpa E}y;fs; mrdhnyg;igg; Gythpd; rhw;W ftpfSld; ntspte;jd.

Mdhy; fhyQ; nry;yr; nry;y mth; ,];yhkpaj; jj;Jtj; Jiwapy; nghpJk; <Lgl;lhh;. mwGnkhopia ed;F gapd;W #gp Kiwj; jj;Jtq;fspy; rpwg;gwpT ngw;whh;.

nra;apJ K`k;kJ gSs; g+f;Nfhah jq;fs; mth;fs;> mrdhnyg;ig mth;fsJ mwpitAk; gf;jpiaAk; mwpe;J mtUf;Ff; fpyhgj;J vDk; gjtpapid toq;fpdhh;. fhjphpa;ahj; jhPf;fpd; [J}hpahg; gphptpd; jiytuhff; flikahw;Wtjw;fhd mjpfhuj;ij toq;Fk; ,e; epakdj;ij mrdhnyg;igapd; ,staJ fhuzkhf gyh; vjph;j;jdnudpDk; g+f;Nfhah jq;fs; mth;fs; mrdhnyg;igiag; Nghd;W jg;]Ph; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; rpwg;gwpT ngw;Nwhiuj; jhd; fhztpy;iy vdf; $wp mth; fPh;j;jpia epiyehl;bdhh;.

mwG nkhopapy; ty;Yeuhd mrdhnyg;igath;fs; mwgpapNy igj;Jf;fs; ,aw;wpdhh;. egpfs; ehafk; NghpYk; K`papj;jPd; mg;Jy; fhjpW Mz;lif mth;fs; NghpYk; jq;fs; IJW}]; NghpYk;> fhjphpa;ahj; jhPf;fpd; NghpYk; gy igj;Jf;fs; ,aw;wpdhh;.

gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; ,yq;ifapy; Njhd;wpa fyhrhu kWkyh;r;rpapd; ,];yhkpaf; nfhOe;J mrdhnyg;ig mth;fs;. ehtyh; tsh;j;j jkpo; kWkyh;r;rpia ,];yhkpaj; JiwAl; gha;r;rp mwGk; jkpOk; tsh;j;J mjdhy; jd; Mj;k Qhdj;ij Xk;gpath;@ <oj; jkpopw; fspj;Js;s ngUik kpF njhz;Lfspy; xd;W ekJ Gyth; mrdhnyg;igath;fs;.

mwG> jkpo;> Mq;fpyk; Mfpa Kk;nkhopfspYk; ty;Yeuhf tpsq;fpa ,th; Mw;wpa Nritfs; msg;ghpad.

     jpdfud; (18.12.1963)


,d;iwaj; Njitfs;

 

,j;njhFg;gpid Mf;Fq;fhy; Njhd;wpa rpy Kf;fpa gpur;rpidfis ,q;F Fwpg;gply; mtrpak;.

,d;W ehk; mwGr; nrhw;fis cgNahfpf;Fk; KiwapYk; mtw;iwj; jkpopy; vOJk; KiwapYk; xUikg;ghby;iy. mwGr; nrhw;fis mtw;wpd; xypg;nghypT FiwahJ vOJjy; mtrpak;. Mdhy; ,d;Nwh> epiyik Kw;wpYk; khwpf;f fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. K];ypk;fs; vd;w xU nrhy;iy KRyPq;fs;> KRypq;fs;> K];yPq;fs;> K];yPk;fs; vdg; gythwhf vOJth;. ,tw;Ws; vJ rhp vd vtUk; nrhy;ytpy;iy. ,j;jifa nrhw;fis vOJtjpy; Xh; xUikg;ghl;bid vOj;jhsh; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sjy; mtrpak;. vdNt mwGr; nrhw;fisj; jkpopy; vOJk;nghOJ xypf;Fwpg;G Kiwapy; xUikg;ghl;bid cz;lhf;Fjy; Kjw; fldhFk;. vkJ Kd;Ndhh; jkpio mwG ypgpapy; vOJk;nghOJ q> l> r> z Nghd;w jkpo; vOj;Jf;fl;F vt;thW mwgpapy; xypf; Fwpfis mikj;Jf; nfhz;ldNuh mNjNghd;W jkpo; ypgpapy; mwG vOj;Jf;fis vOJk;nghOJk;> jkpopy; ,y;yh xypfSf;F Vw;w xypf;Fwpfis mikj;Jf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

gh. jht+j;\h mth;fs; 1932 Mk; Mz;L ntspapl;l ~~egpfs; ehaf khd;kpak;|| vDk E}ypy; ifahz;bUf;Fk; Kiwapid mbnahw;wpr; nry;NthNkahdhy; XusT xUikg;ghl;bid Vw;gLj;jyhk;.

mLj;J> jkpopy; ifahsg;ngWk; mwGr; nrhw;fis vOJk; Kiwiaf; fhl;Lfpd;wJk;> mr; nrhw;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisf; $Wfpd;wJkhd Xh; mfuhjp Njit. jw;fhy mfuhjp Kiwg;gb jahhpf;fg;gLk; mj; njhFg;gpy; nrhy;ypd; nghUs; khj;jpuky;yhJ> epfz;L Nghd;W xU nghUl; fpstpfs; ahTk; Fwpg;gplg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. jkpopy; mwGf;fhd xypf; Fwpg;Gf;fSld; Fwpj;j nrhy;iy vOjp> mLj;J mwgpapy; mjid vOjpg; gpd;dh; mjd; fUj;ijAk; xj;j nghUSila gpw nrhw;fisAk; Fwpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thwhd Kiwapy; Xh; mwGj; jkpo; nrhw;Nfhit jf;fthW jahhpf;fg;gLNky; mJ ,];yhkpa tuyhW> fyhrhuk; Mfpatw;iwf; fhl;Lk; fz;zhbahf tpsq;Fnkd;gJ jpz;zk;. jkpo; %yk; ,];yhk; gug;Gk; mwpQh;fs; ,j; Jiwapy; gzpahw;w Ntz;Lnkd;gJ vd; mth.

,d;W ehk; mwGr; nrhw;fisAk;> mwGld; neUq;fpa njhlh;Gnfhz;l gpw nkhopr; nrhw;fisAk; ifahSfpd;Nwhk;. ,jdhy; mtw;iw vOJtjpy; ngU kaf;fk; Vw;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf> mwgpapy; ~wkohd;| vd tUtJ cUJtpy; ~wk;rhd;| vd;Nw epw;Fk;. ,t;thwhd cr;rhpg;G NtWghLfs; tUk;nghOJ ehk; mwG cr;rhpg;igNa vLj;Jf;nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;. mwG ehl;bw;Fk; vkf;FKs;s g+h;tPf cwT jUk; chpik mJ.

,];yhkpag; gz;gpid ed;F tpsf;Ftjw;Fr; rpy mwGr; nrhw;fisf; ifahSjy; vj;Jiz mtrpaNkh mj;Jiz Kf;fpakhdJ rpy jkpo;r; nrhw;fisf; ifahshky; jtph;j;jYkhFk;. nrhw;nghUs; top tuyhw;wpy; ,e;J rkaf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;fpiaaj; Njhd;wpa nrhw;fisAk; mtw;iw tpsf;fj; Njhd;wpa nrhw;fisAk; gpuNahfpg;gpd; mit ,];yhkpaf; Nfhl;ghLfl;F xt;thJ epw;Fk;. my;yh`;itg; gw;wpg; NgRk;nghOJ ~mtjhpj;jy;| ~fhl;rpaspj;jy;| ~,uz;lwf; fyj;jy;| Nghd;w gjq;fs; ifahsg;gLNky; mJ ,];yhj;jpd; Vf nja;tf; Nfhl;ghl;bw;Fj; jpiuapl;LtpLk;.

,t;thW mwGr; nrhw;fis mjpfk; ifahsNtz;Lnkd;W nrhy;Yk;nghOJ vkJ ,yf;fpa Mf;fq;fs; ahTk; vk;kpilNa khj;jpuk; ,Ug;gdthfTk;> gpw jkpo; NgRk; kf;fshy; gapyg;gl KbahjdthfTk; Ngha; tplf;$Lk;. me;epiyik Vw;gLtij ehk; mtrpak; jLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mwGj; jkpo; E}y;fs; rpytw;iwg; ghhj;jhy; Kd;dh; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s Kiwapy; Ntz;lhj mwGr; nrhw;fs; gy mq;F kype;J fplg;gijf; fhzyhk;. f]]{y; md;gpah vDk; E}ypy; Kjypuz;L mjpfhuq;fspYk; jkpoy;yhj nrhw;fs; E}W tiuapy; cs. vd; fUj;Jg;gb ,tw;Ws; ehw;gJ nrhw;fs; tiuapy; fl;lhak; ,lk; ngwNtz;bad. Kg;gJ nrhw;fs; ,lk; ngw;wpUf;fNt $lhJ. NkNy $wpa epajpfis ciufy;yhff; nfhs;spd;> ,k; KbTf;Nf tuy; Ntz;Lk;.

,e; epiyik ePq;fp vkJ ,yf;fpaq;fs; gw;wpg; gpwUk; mwtjw;F> mwpTj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaf; Nfhit xd;wpidj; jpul;ly; mtrpak;. mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fs; vd;W $Wk;nghOJ cah; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fl;F <lhf epw;Fk; rPwhg;Guhzk; Nghd;wtw;wpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fhJ> K];ypk; kf;fspd; md;whl tho;tpy; Kd;ndy;yhk; ,lk;ngw;w Kdh[hj;Jf;fs;> rpe;Jfs;> fhuzr; rhpj;jpuq;fs;> fp];]hf;fs; Nghd;w kf;fs; ,yf;fpaq;fl;Nf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;Jj; jpul;ly; Ntz;Lk;. vdpDk; xypf; Fwpg;Gf;fisg; ghh;f;fpYk; tpNr\ vOj;Jf;fisg; ghtpj;jy; rpwg;GilajhFk;.

mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,];yhj;jpd; jdpj;Jtk; Fd;whkYk; jkpo;g; gz;G kiwahkYk; ,Ug;gjw;F (1) xypf;Fwp xUikg;ghL (2) mwGj; jkpo; mfuhjp (3) mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaf; Nfhit vd;gd gw;wp cld; Mtd nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

     E}d;Kfk; – ,yq;ifapy; ,];yhk;


nkhopngah;g;Gf; fiy

 

     ~~fy;tp vd;gJ ghi\fis thrpj;jwpjy; khj;jpuky;y. kd tphpTf;Fk; njspTf;Fk; gytpj mwpT E}y;fisAk; ed;whawptjhk;. Mdhy; Nkw;nrhy;ypa gpuNahrdKs;s E}y;fs; jkpo; ghi\apNy kpfTk; RUf;fkhdgbapdhNyNa jkpo;g; ghi\ia khj;jpuk; njhpe;jth;fs; mitfisawpe;J nfhs;tjw;F topapy;yhJ ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Mifahy; mwG fpjhGfspypUe;J mwpa Ntz;ba mwpTfisAk; ~~,q;fpyp\;|| Kjypa ghi\fspYs;s fy;tpfisAk; tpN\rkhd Gjpdq;fisAk; gbj;jth;fSk; gbahjth;fSk;> Kjpath;fSk; ,isath;fSk; kw;iwath;fSk; jq;fs; jq;fs; Ntiy Kaw;rpfNshL thrpj;jwpe;J nfhs;Sk;gb cykhf;fs;> fy;tpkhd;fs; Mfpath;fSila cjtpiaf; nfhz;L xU gj;jphpifiaf; fpoik NjhWk; gpuRuQ; nra;a tpUk;gp ,g; gj;jphpiff;F ~K];ypk; Nerd; vd;w ngahpl;Nlhk;.||

1882Mk; Mz;L brk;gh; khjk; 21k; ehs; ntspahd mwGj; jkpo; thu ,johfpa K];ypk; Nerdpd; Kjyhe; jiyaq;fjjpy; vk;.rp. rpj;jpnyt;it mth;fshy; vOjg;gl;l $w;wpd; xU gFjpNa Nkw;Nghe;j trdq;fshFk;. rpj;jpnyt;it mth;fNs K];ypk; Nerdpd; nrhe;jf;fhuh;@ gpuRufh;j;jh;@ Mrphpah;. xUtNu %tuha; epd;W flikahw;wpdhh;. ,tUila fhyj;J ,yq;ifapy; tuyhw;iwj; JUtp Muha> NeuKk; Mh;tKk; Gj;jprhJhpaKs;s tpj;jfnuntNuDk; Kd; tUthuhapd; vk;.rp. rpj;jpnyt;it mth;fs; K];ypk; fy;tpapd; kWkyh;r;rpj; je;ij vdg; Nghw;Wjw;fhd Nghjpa mj;jhl;rpiaf; fhz;ly; $Lnkd;W ek;gpf;ifAld; ehd; $wj; JzpNtd;. rpj;jpnyt;it mth;fs; ,yq;if K];ypk; kf;fspd; kj;jpapNy Gj;jp tpNtfj;jpd; vOr;rpf;fhfg; gy jlitfspy; nrhd;dit> vOjpait vy;yhk; nghUs; epiwe;[email protected] cw;rhf%l;[email protected] tpiykjpg;gw;wit. ,it vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl ,d;W vq;fs; gpur;rpidfisj; jPh;f;ff; $baitfshf mth; md;W $wpa mwpTiufs; fhl;ba toptiffs; mike;J fplf;fpd;wd vd;W ehk; gpukpg;gila Ntz;bath;fshfpd;Nwhk;. ,tw;wpy; xd;Nw NkNy fhl;ba Nkw;Nfhs;.

mwG nkhopapd; Jizapd;wp my;yh`;tpd; gpufldkhf mUsg;ngw;w ,iw kiwahk; jpUf;Fh;Mid vq;fs; r%fk; mZf [email protected] mk;nkhopapy; Mf;fg;gl;l jg;]Ph;fisNah> gpf;`{ E}y;fisNah> khh;f;ff; fpue;jq;fisNah ehk; mwpa KbahJ. f];]hyp ,khk;> \h typAy;yhq;> K`k;kJ mg;J`; Mfpa nghpahh;fs; tpl;Lr; nrd;w mUk;ngUk; E}y;fisg; gad;gLj;j KbahJ.

mwG nkhop %yk; ngwf;$ba mwptpid vq;fs; r%fj;jpy; epiwag; gug;gpdhyd;wpf; fyhrhu tpUj;jp Kaw;rpfis mD$ykhff; ifahs KbahJ. ,t;Tz;ikia ed;Fzh;e;Nj gy Ngjq;fSf;F vjpuhf> njhy;iyfisg; nghUl;gLj;jhJ> rpj;jpnyt;it jkJ gj;jphpifia mth; rhh;e;j r%fkhfpa vq;fs; r%fk; ve;j tifapYk; ve;j NtisapYk;> mj;jpahtrpakhd mwptpdJ Fiwtpdhy; thlhky;> kyh;r;rpnfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;w tplhg;gpb Nehf;fj;NjhL njhlf;fp itj;jhh;.

fy;tpapd; Clfj;jpYk; njhlh;gpYk; mjd; ntspaPl;L gpurhu KiwfspYk; fhyk; gy khw;wq;fis cUthf;fpAs;sJ. thuhe;j rQ;rpifad;wpj; jpdrhpfSe; Njhd;wyhapd. md;W Guhzq; Nfl;l kf;fs; ,d;W thndhyp %yk; Njhj;jpug; ghly;fisf; Nfl;Lk; ,urpf;ff; $bath;fshapUf;fpd;whh;fs;. thrpg;G> vOj;J> fzpjk; vd;w %d;W ghlq;fSNk chpj;jhapUe;j ghlrhiyfs; ,d;W tho;f;iff;F Maj;jg;gLj;Jk; kj;jpajhdkhf khw;wg;glyhapd. r%fKk; ghlrhiyAk; kpfTk; neUq;fpg; gpd;dpg; gpize;J epw;fpd;wd. vt;thnwdpd; ghlrhiyapd; Rw;whlypYs;s xt;nthtUk; gioa Gjpa my;yJ tUq;fhy khzhf;fuhfj; njhlh;G nfhs;sg;gLfpd;whh;. ,J jtph;f;f KbahjJ. ,g;nghOJ mwpntd;gJ njhlh;r;rpahf vz;zNkh> ftiyNah ,y;yhj Kaw;rpfspd; %yk; mjhtJ ehq;fs; gpuhz thAit %r;Rg; Ngr;rpd;wpg; gphpj;njLj;Jf;nfhz;L Rthrpg;gJ Nghd;W ngwg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. fd;dq;fuh fhyj;jpNy jhgpf;fg;gl;l murhq;f K];ypk; ghlrhiyfs; mjd;gpd; tUlhtUlk; tpUj;jpahf;fg;gl;L tsh;e;Js;sd. nghJthf Nehf;Fkplj;J> ,g; ghlrhiyfspw; fy;tp gapw;Wk; Mrphpah; Fohk; vq;fs; fyhrhug; ghJfhtyh;fshfj; jpfo;fpd;whh;fs; vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. ,g;gbahd xU jiyikAk; jhdKk; tUjy; $Lnkd;W murpdh; K];ypk; ghlrhiyfs; jhgdkhtjw;F Kd;dpUe;j rpj;jpnyt;it mth;fs; fhyj;jpy; vjph;ghh;j;jpUf;f KbahJ.

,tw;wpd; ngWNgwhf murhq;f K];ypk; ghlrhiyfspw; fw;gpf;Fk; Mrphpah;fs; vq;fs; r%f fyhrhuj;jpd; ghJfhtyh;fshfj; jpfo> mth;fis Mrphpah;fshfg; gapw;Wk; gapw;rpf; fy;Y}hpfs; vq;fs; fyhrhuj;jpd; muz;fshf mikfpd;wd. Nkw;gb fy;Y}hpfspw; gapw;rp ngw;w Mrphpah;fs; jq;fs; nghWg;gpy; tplg;gLk; khzhf;fiug; gapw;Wtjd;wpAk; g+uzkhd ey;tho;f;ifia elhj;j topfhl;bfshf vq;fs; r%fj;jpd; tUq;fhyj; jiyth;fis cUthf;Fk; nghWg;GKilatuhthh;fs;.

vq;fs; fyhrhuj;ij tsh;f;fj; Njitg;gLk; nkhop ngah;g;ghsh; Fohnkhd;wpid murhq;f K];ypk; Mrphpah;fspypUe;J cUthf;f Ntz;ba Njit Vw;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. mwGnkhop %yk; ngwf;$ba mwpit Mrphpah; ghlrhiyg; gps;isfSf;Fk; mwG nkhop njhpahj nghJ kf;fSf;Fk; ,ilapw; gutr; nra;th;. ,t;tif nkhop ngah;g;ghsh; Fohj;jpdh; ,e;j Nehf;fj;ijj; jdpg;gl;lth;fshf gphpj;J itf;fg;gl;l mq;fq;fshfg; nghJthd Nehf;fk; vJTkpd;wp nghJ epUthfkpd;wp> nghJ mikg;gpd;wpr; nrt;itahfTk; jpUg;jpfukhfTk; epiwNtw;w KbahJ. nkhopngah;g;Gj; Jiwapd; nray; Kiwapy; mDrhpf;ff; $ba tpjpfs; kw;Wk; tpUj;jpaile;j fiyfs; rhj;jpuq;fSf;F ,Ug;gJNghy;> ,Ue;jhw;whd; r%fj;jpw;F Ntz;ba ed;ik gaf;Fk;. ,t;tifahd newpKiw vq;fs; r%fj;jpy; cjpf;f Ntz;Lkhapd; mijg; gapw;rpf; fy;Y}hpfs; Nghd;w jhgdq;fshw;whd; Njhw;Wtpf;f KbAk;. nkhop ngah;g;Gf; fiy kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ. vdNt mjid Kiwg;gb Njbf;nfhs;s Vw;ghL nra;ag;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,jid Vw;ghL nra;tjw;F tha;g;ghd jFe;j Kiw ,e;j mw;Gjf; fiyahfpa nkhopngah;g;Gf; fiyf;Fj; jPh;f;fkhd-rpwg;ghd ,lk; ghl tpjhdj;jpy; fl;lha ghlkhfNth tpUg;gg; ghlkhfNth mjw;Fhpa Nkd;ikNahL mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Neu#rp NghLk; EZf;fk; ghPl;irf; Nfs;tpg; gj;jpuq;fs; gw;wpa tprhuiz ,f; fl;Liuf;F mg;ghw;gl;litahFk;.

 jkpo; nkhopiag; NgRk; ,yq;if K];ypk;fSf;F ,e;j nkhopngah;g;Gj; JiwapNy njd;dpe;jpahtpYQ; rhp> ,yq;ifapYQ; rhp mwGj; jkpo; vOj;jhsh;fshy; ngUitg;ngd tpl;Lr; nrd;w xU jdp kuG vq;fs; %jhijaUf;Fk; Vw;Gilj;jha; jiyKiw jiyKiwaha; Muk;g fhye;njhl;Nl ahtuhYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glj; jf;fjha; ,Ue;jJ vdyhk;. Vnddpy; mg;NghjpUe;j Fh;Md; gs;spf;$l Kiw tPl;bYk; nghJ ,lq;fspYk; nksY}j;> Guhzk; Mfpatw;iw XJk; [email protected] gs;spthry;fspy; xOq;fhfr; nrhy;yg;gLk; `jPJ Kiw Kjypait nghjpag; ngw;Ws;s Nfl;ly;> ghh;j;jy; vd;w gapw;wy; KiwfNshL nghUe;jpa XjYk; xg;Gtpj;jYk; vd;w jd;ikfs; fhuzkhf me;jf; fhyj;jpy; vOj thrpf;fj; njhpe;jth;fs; kpff; Fiwthf ,Ue;Jk; mwGj; jkpo; ,yf;fpak; kpfTk; gutpapUe;jJ. ,d;W me;epiy Fd;wp tUtij ehk; cw;W Nehf;fp Mtd nra;a Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;. rfy JiwfspYk; murpay;> fyhrhuk; Mfpatw;wpYk; ,tw;iw czh;r;rpAlDk; jd;khdj;JlDk; NkYk; tsh;f;f xUg;glhikahYk; tsh;e;J te;j kuG thb tjq;fj; njhlq;Ffpd;wJ.

,e;j kuigg; GJg;gpf;Fkplj;J nrd;w gy Mz;Lfspw; ngw;w mDgq;fspdhy; ehq;fs; ed;ik milayhk;@ fl;lhak; milayhk;. md;wpAk; ,f;fhyj; Njitf;fpiaa ,e;j kuig xU rpy khw;wq;fSld; GJg;gpf;f cj;jpfisf; ifahSNthkhf!

,e;j kugpd; Njhw;wKk; tsh;r;rpAk; K];ypk; kf;fspd; tpN\l ghd;ikahfpa mwG nkhopg; ghrj;NjhL njhlh;Gilanjdyhk;. vq;fs; %jhijaUf;Fk; vq;fSf;Fk; mwG nkhop Xh; cyf nkhop vd;gjw;fhfNth> fpNuf;f ,e;jpa ,yf;fpaq;fspd; nkhop ngah;g;Gf;fisAila tsk;ngw;w nkhop vd;gjw;fhfNth gioa E}w;whz;Lfspd; rf;fuhjpgj;jpa nkhop vd;gjw;fhfNth my;y> m/J vq;fSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ. ghpRj;j Fh;Md; nkhopahifahy; m/J vq;fSf;F mjp Kf;fpak; Mfpd;wJ. Vnddpy; kdpjdhy; cUthf;fg;glhj my;yh`;tpd; thh;j;ijfs; mk; nkhopapw;whd; ,wf;fg;gl;ld. MfNtjhd; jpUf;Fh;MDf;Nf chpj;jhd mjpYs;s tpN\lkhd fUj;Jg; gbtq;fSf;Fk; nrhw;fSf;Fk; nghUj;jkhd rk nrhw;fs; Ntw;W nkhopapw; fhz;gjhpJ. kw;iwa nkhopfspy; Kw;whf-KOikahf czh;r;rpNahL ,jid vLj;Jiuf;f Kbahj f\;lk; xU GwkpUf;f jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; Qhd mUl;rp> J}J> re;jk;> nkhopeil ,it fhuzkhf ,t;tpiw kiwia kw;iwa nkhopfspw; g+uzkhf nkhop ngah;f;f Kbahnjd mOj;jk; jpUj;jkhf KbT nra;ag;glyhapw;W. gpf;Njhy; mth;fspd; $w;Wg;gb jpUf;Fh;Md; nkhopngah;g;gpy; fz;zPh; rpe;jTk; gutrkilaTQ; nra;Ak; mjp crpjkhd ,d;dpiriaf; if nefpotpl;Lj; jFjpahd thh;j;ijfNshL ngUk;ghyhf vOj;Jg; ngah;r;rpNa nraw;ghyjhfpd;wJ. rhp rk nrhw;fisAk; rpy rkaj;jpw; fhz KbahJ. mj;jd;ikAs;s nrhw;fisAk; fUj;Jg;gbtq;fisAk; cjhuzq;fshff; nfhs;SNthk;. my;yh`;> w#y;> ck;kj;> njs`Pj;> rfwhj;> ikapj;> [dh]h> tyPkh Nghd;w nrhw;fSf;F XusT rk gjq;fs; jkpopypUe;Jk; mtw;iw cgNahfpf;f K];ypk; kf;fs; Vd; kWf;fpwhh;fs; vd;gJ ,g;NghJ njspthfpd;wJ.

     ,sk;gpiw: fy;tpkyh; 1965


];th`pyp nkhopj; njhlh;G

 

Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;Njhkhdhy; ,e;j xw;Wikiaapl;L tpag;gilaj; Njitapy;iy. Vndd;why; ,e;j ];th`pyp kf;fspdJk; Nrhdfh;fspdJk; fyhrhuk; ,];yhkpa fyhrhuNkahFk;: NkYk; ];th`pyp nkhopf;Fk; mwGj; jkpOf;Fk; $l gy xw;Wikfis ehk; fhzyhk;. mwGj; jkpopy; mwGr; nrhw;fs; tputpf; fple;jhYk; trdq;fs; jkpo; ,yf;fzg;gbNa mikAk;;. ,t;thNw ];th`pyp nkhopapYk; gy mwGr; nrhw;fs; ,lk; ngw;whYk; trd Mf;fk; fpof;fhgphpf;ff; fiuNahuq;fspy; tof;fpypUe;j ~ghe;J| nkhop kuignahl;bNa mikAk;. mwG ml;ruq;fshy; Fwpg;gpl Kbahj jkpo; xypfisf; Fwpg;gjw;F nehf;fj;Jf;fis Efj;- Fw;Wfis cgNahfpf;Fk; tof;fk; ];th`pyp> mwGj; jkpo; ,uz;bw;Fk; nghJthFk;. mwG ypgpapy; vOjg; ngw;W te;j mwGj; jkpo;> njd;dpe;jpahtpw;Fk; ,yq;iff;Fk; mr;R ,ae;jpuk; te;J Nrh;e;jTld; jkpo; ypgpapy; mr;rhfpaJ. mJNghyNt ];th`pypAk; gphpl;b\hUila nry;thf;fpd; fhuzkhf Nuhkd; ypgpapy; vOjg;glyhapw;W. K];ypk; rhk;uh[;ak; fPh;j;jpapd; rpfuj;ij mile;jpUe;j fhyj;jpy; gy nkhopfs; mwG ypgpapNyNa vOjg; ngw;wd. ,tw;Ws; kyha;> JWf;fp> c];ngf; Kjypa nkhopfs; rpythFk;. ,d;W kyhAk; JWf;fpAk; Nuhkd; ypgpiag; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. c];ngf; U\;a ypgpapy; vOjg;gLfpwJ. Ml;rpf;Fk; nkhopf;FKz;lhFk; gpizg;gpid ,e;jr; rhd;Wfs; vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

,d;W ];th`pyp fpof;fhgphpf;fhtpd; gpujhd nkhopahfTk; jd;]hdpahtpd; cj;jpNahf nkhopahfTk; fPd;ahtpd; gpujhd murfUk nkhopahfTk; tpsq;FfpwJ. fpof;fhgphpf;fhtpy; ];th`pyp ngw;wpUf;Fk; ,e;j me;j];J njhlh;e;J epiy epw;Fkhntd;gJ Nfs;tpf;FhpaJ> vdpDk; cyfpd; mjpKf;fpa gd;dpuz;L nkhopfspy; ];th`pypAk; xd;W vd;gjhf ehd; vq;Nfh gbj;j QhgfkpUf;fpwJ.

nkhk;g]hTf;F mz;ikapYs;s n`jhT vd;Dkplj;jpy; FbNawpa KjyhtJ mwGf; Nfh\;b gw;wp ,q;F Fwpg;gply; nghUj;jkhFk;. Ie;jhtJ cikah `yPgh mg;Jy; khypf; ,g;D kh;thd; (fp.gp. 685 705) Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;l cs;ehl;Lf; Fog;gq;fspd; fhuzkhfj; jg;gpNahba (mwG) mfjpfs; n`jhtpw; FbNawpdh;. ,yq;ifapy; gy;NtW ,lq;fspYk; (Vnol;L ,lq;fspy;) te;J FbNawpa Mjp mwG kf;fSk; ,Nj `yPghtpd; Ml;rpapy; `h]pkpa;ah;fSf;F ,iof;fg;ngw;w nfhLikfSf;F mQ;rp ehL Jwe;jth;fNshahth;. mwG ehl;bd; ,Ug;gplj;ijf; ftdpf;Fk;NghJ> me;ehl;L kf;fSf;F ,e;J kfhrKj;jpuj;jpd; xU ghhprj;jpYs;s fpof;F Mgphpf;ff; fiuNahuq;fSk; kW ghhprj;jpYs;s fpof;F Mgphpf;ff; fiuNahuq;fSk; kW ghhprj;jpYs;s njd;dpe;jpa> ,yq;iff; fiug;gFjpfSk; rk mstpw; gof;fKiladthf ,Ue;jpUf;Fnkd;gJ Gyg;gLk;. ,jidf; nfhz;L ];th`pypf;Fk; mwGj; jkpOf;FKs;s md;Gj; jisia Cfpf;fyhk;. ];tah`pyp kf;fspdJk; Nrhdf kf;fspdJk; gof;f tof;fq;fs; rk;gpujhaq;fs; ,yf;fpaq;fs; Mfpatw;wpy; kpFe;j xw;Wikfs; fhzg;gLjiyAk; fhzyhk;. ,U tFg;ghUk; \hgpfshf ,Ug;gJk; Fwpg;gplj; jf;fjhFk;. ,j;Jiwapy; Muha tpisAk; vtUk; mwG> ,q;fpyp\;> jkpo;> ];th`pyp Mrpa ehd;F nkhopfshtJ njhpe;jtuhapUj;jy; mtrpak;. ek;kpilNa Xh; my; igW}dp csNuy;.?

24k; mj;jpahak;> ~~fpof;fhgphpf;ff; fhl;rpfs

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